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Commander of Schnellboot S in the 3. Commander of the I. Staffelführer of the 5. Commander of Grenadier-Regiment  .
Leader of the I. Commander of Pionier-Lehr-Bataillon 2 and leader of a Kampfgruppe  . Commanding general of the III. Zugführer platoon leader in the Gruppenkommandeur of the IV.
Leader of Panzer-Jäger-Kompanie  . Commander of the Gruppenkommandeur of the III. Pilot in the 4. Commander of Jäger-Regiment 56  .
Commander of the III. Radio operator in the 4. Staffelkapitän of the 5. Leader of the 2. Pilot in the III.
Gruppenkommandeur of the I. Commander of Artillerie-Regiment  . Leader of Grenadier-Regiment 20 motorized  . Zugführer platoon leader in the 5.
Pilot in the 6. Chief of the 9. Leader of the 4. Commander of Grenadier-Regiment  . Leader of the II. Chief of the 1. Chief of the 4. Commander of Grenadier-Regiment  .
Commander of the II. Pilot in the 1. Staffelkapitän in the II. Zugführer platoon leader in the 2. Commander of Infanterie-Regiment  .
Pilot of the 4. Pilot in the I. Commander of Kampfgruppe  [Note 16]. Commander of Infanterie-Regiment  . Staffelführer in the III.
Chief of the 3. Leader of machine gun squadron in the 2. Ia operations officer in the 9. Flak-Division motorized  .
Commander of Panzer-Regiment 4  . Staffelkapitän of the 6. Leader of a Kampfgruppe of the V. SS-Gebirgskorps  [Note 20]. Chef des Generalstabes des Heeres  .
Geschwaderkommodore of Kampfgeschwader 76  . Group leader in the 3. Leader of Panzer-Feldersatz-Regiment 63  .
Deputy leader of the 2. Zugführer platoon leader in the 4. Leader of the 8. Leader of the 5. Staffelkapitän in the III. Pilot and observer in the 4.
Deputy leader of the 8. Commander of Panzer-Artillerie-Regiment  . Pilot in the II. Commander of a Kampfgruppe in the Waffen-Gebirgs-Division der SS .
Deputy leader of the II. Leader of the 1. Commander of Waffen-Gebirgsjäger-Regiment 28 . Pilot in the 7. Zugführer platoon leader in the 3. Commanding general of the X.
Commanding general of the LIV. Rifle leader in the 6. Commander of Grenadier-Regiment  . Commander of Grenadier-Regiment  .
Commander of U  . Chief of the Chief of the Generalstab of the X. Commander of Grenadier-Regiment  . Leader of the Zugführer platoon leader in the I.
Staffelführer of the 7. Observer in the 9. Commanding general of the I. Commander of U  . Panzer commander in the Pioneer Zugführer platoon leader in the 5.
Pilot in the 9. Leader in Panzer-Jäger-Abteilung "Breslau"  . Commanding general of the XXX. Artilleriekommandeur  .
Commander of U  . Commander of Pionier-Bataillon 8  . Commander of schwere SS-Panzer-Abteilung . Zugführer platoon leader in the 6.
Ia operations officer of the 9. SS-Panzer-Division "Hohenstaufen"  . Ordonnanzoffizier batman of the I.
General staff officer with the commander of the fortress Schneidemühl Ia operations officer Panzer-Division "Holstein"  [Note 47].
Pilot in the Company leader in the Panzer-Aufklärungs-Abteilung 6  . Commander of Panzer-Verband  . Chief of the 6.
Commander of the 4. Regiment adjutant in the Infanterie-Regiment 77  [Note 53]. Pilot in the 8. Leader of Kradschützen-Bataillon 55  .
Commander of Grenadier-Regiment 55  . Commander of Panzer-Regiment 25  . Staffelkapitän in the I. Commander of Kradschützen-Bataillon 61  .
Leader of the 3. Commander of SS-Division "Reich"  . Zugführer platoon leader in the 1. Adjutant in the III. Chief of the 2. Commander of U  .
Commander of Flak-Regiment motorized  . Ordonnanzoffizier batman in Grenadier-Regiment  . Commander of Pionier-Bataillon 29 motorized  .
Commander of Panzer-Abteilung "Feldherrnhalle"  [Note 59]. Group leader in Grenadier-Regiment  . Leader of Divisions-Füsilier-Bataillon A.
Leader of Grenadier-Regiment  . Commanded to general staff training in the Stab of the Commander of Pionier-Bataillon  . Observer in the 1.
Chief of the general staff of the XXIV. Flak-Abteilung motorized  [Note 64]. Commander of Fallschirmjäger-Regiment 3  .
Leader of Grenadier-Regiment  . Commander of U  . Pilot in the 3. Commander of Pionier-Bataillon 70 motorized  . Leader of the III.
Commander of Grenadier-Regiment  . Truppführer team leader in the 1. Leader of Panzer-Jäger-Abteilung 10 motorized  [Note 69].
Geschützführer gun layer in the 1. Zugtruppführer platoon HQ section leader in the Commander of Infanterie-Regiment 24  . Staffelkapitän of the 9.
Geschützführer gun layer in the 3. Commanding general of the VIII. Zugführer platoon leader in the 7. Staffelkapitän of the 4.
Commander of Grenadier-Regiment 53  . Leader of the 7. Commanding general of the VII. Commander of Panzergrenadier-Regiment 21  .
Captain of Blockadebrecher blockade runner Motorschiff "Osorno"  [Note 83]. Commander of U  . Ordonnanzoffizier batman of the II.
Commander of Infanterie-Regiment  . Commander of Pionier-Bataillon  . Battalion leader with fortress commander Kolberg Pommern  [Note 87].
Mayer the Baron of Fahnenberg. When Maria Theresa required her troops to head to the east to fight against Frederick the Great during the Second War of the Austrian Succession and moved them from the western forelands there were still 6, men patrolling Freiburg , the French saw an opportunity of another attack on the cities neighbouring the Rhine.
He took quarters at the castle of Munzingen. After a siege lasting six weeks, Freiburg surrendered and after , and , the French occupied the city and fortress of Freiburg for the fourth time.
Before that, however, the French dragged down their fortifications they had built fifty years previously and blew them up to the point where all the houses around the city which were located near the fortifications were now ruined.
Only the Breisacher Tor remained from the buildings developed by Vauban. There was bitter poverty in the city. In , only men and women lived in Freiburg.
The Court of Audit in Vienna however were not so impressed, which complained about the effort involved. When the French Revolution broke out in , this event was the unprecedented succession of the three estate-based society in the German states as well as Freiburg which had been growing over the past centuries.
In Breisgau, the first and spiritual state was the most important despite the secularisation of a part of the church's possessions, because of its abundant wealth, including the monasteries of St.
The second state included the old imperial aristocracy with its lands, but also the low-income knights established by the generous ennoblement of the Habsburgers.
They gave a firm scaffolding for administrative officers, lawyers and university professors of the feudal society.
At the third state were the bourgeoisie, well organised in guilds and who had come into prosperity. On the other hand, were the peasants.
Even if they were no longer alive, they were still dependent on the ecclesiastical and secular landowners. Inwardly, it remained quiet in Breisgau, as our nation was After the revolutionary army had occupied the Empire's key of Breisach , the French captured Freiburg in the Summer of This, however, only after the militia 's resistance led by " Mayor and Town Council Ignaz Caluri ", when Sumeraus brother-in-law General Max Freiherr von Duminique put his troops' names on a plaque.
This plaque can be found to this day at Martinstor. A rare occasion, where a general has put his troops on a monument.
This time, however, the Habsburgers did not abandon their right-Rhine possessions. After several Austrian defeats in Upper Italy against the revolutionary groups of the French army led by commander Napoleon Bonaparte , he then captured the conquered territories of the Cisalpine Republic in accordance with the Treaty of Campo Formio.
Ercole III, however, disagreed with this exchange since he did not consider his losses to be sufficiently compensated. Even after the defeat of Austria at the War of the Second Coalition in , when the Prince was given the title of Ortenau , the change of rule took place only hesitantly.
Hermann von Greiffenegg, who formally controlled Breisgaun on 2 March, on behalf of the House of Este , led government affairs.
Breisgau then belonged practically to the Habsburgers, even when the reigning powers formally passed to a side line. However, Austria suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz.
Thus, the Modenish-Habsburg interlude for Breisgau and Ortenau lasted only briefly, because Napoleon located in occupied Vienna, commanded that these areas have passed to Baden.
Freiburg was degraded from an outpost of Habsburg on the Upper Rhine to a provincial town in a buffer state promoted by Napoleon's grace in to the Grand Duchy of Baden.
Mercilessly, Napoleon squeezed money from the coalition states and especially for fresh troops which he needed for his campaign against Russia. The death toll increased the anti-Napoleonic mood in the German lands, but, in Prussia , Freikorps were raised against the Napoleonic rule.
In , Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden , at the Battle of Leipzig , had the Baden mercenaries fighting on Napoleon's side fight within his framework of obligations in the Confederation of the Rhine.
It is not surprising that the Baden coat of arms was demolished in Freiburg, formerly ruled by the Habsburgs, from the local government building and an imperial double eagle replaced it.
Citizens of Freiburg, who were loyal to the Habsburgers, prepared an enthusiastic reception. Old feelings broke out: Vienna and catholic Austria led by the Habsburgs were closer to the citizens of Freiburg than those in Karlsruhe and Protestant North Baden.
All political efforts conducted by the City Council of Freiburg, however, did not help. Freiburg and Breisgau had closer ties to Baden.
When the final renunciation of the former Austrian forelands took place at the Congress of Vienna , Klemens von Metternich compromised on the Franco-Habsburg conflict of interests concerning the Rhine, which had lasted for centuries, but this created a new potential Franco-Prussian conflict of interests.
This was because Prussia instead of Austria took over the Wacht am Rhein with its new acquisitions in the Lower Rhine ,.
Freiburg did not return to Austria's mild hand. Many people were disappointed but also saw the opportunity for liberalisation.
Freiburg professor and Liberal Karl von Rotteck also complained about the " break-up of the mild sceptre, which had been a delight to us for centuries , but then worked on the right-liberal constitution of Baden and saw in it an agreeable element.
But from now on, we are One People, have a collective will and a collective right". The Carlsbad Decrees stifled the hope of a political liberalisation in the German lands, which had spread during the Wars of Liberation.
Although Baden had a comparatively liberal constitution, the government operated a reactionary policy in Karlsruhe.
The bourgeoisie fell back into the Biedermeier family. In the years following the Congress of Vienna, Freiburg developed into an economic and political centre of the Upper Rhine.
Within Freiburg, Freiburg was the seat of a municipal office and two state council offices, which were united in to one council in Freiburg, into which the communities of the dissolved St.
Peter's office were integrated. In , Freiburg became the seat of the newly founded Archdiocese of Freiburg with the Freiburg Minster acting as an episcopal church.
When Grand Duke Louis I died in , the people of Baden had high expectations of his successor, Leopold , who was fully acquainted with the constitutional monarchy.
His new cabinet, with progressive members, passed a liberal press law during the Christmas of , but as early as July , the Baden government reintroduced pre-censure due to the pressure ensued by the Federal Convention based in Frankfurt.
The following student protests in Freiburg lasted until the autumn. On 12 September , the government decreed the closure of the university because of the pernicious direction which the university has been taking for a considerable length of time in terms of politics and morals in the greater part, and the resulting, but no less damaging influence on the scientific education of the students.
Their newspaper, Der Freisinnige was also banned. From , Freiburg was the seat of Upper Rhine council which included several administrative bodies.
When Karl von Rotteck was elected as mayor in Freiburg by an overwhelming majority in , the government informed then that: Karl von Rotteck elected as the mayor of Freiburg, the confirmation as herewith is to fail.
After the northern section of the Rhine valley railway had reached Freiburg, the opening of the train station took place in When, at the end of February , Louis Philippe I was overthrown in the motherland of the revolution, and the second republic was called, a liberation movement also awoke to the right of the Rhine.
In Baden, it was lawyers Friedrich Hecker and Gustav Struve , who demanded unconditional freedom of the press, jury courts according to the model used in England, popular armament and the immediate establishment of a German parliament.
Like everywhere across Germany, the revolutionary fractions in Baden were divided into supporters of a constitutional monarchy and a republic.
The disputes over this question were culminated at a general assembly in Freiburg on 26 March The establishment of the elected Frankfurt Parliament did not slow Hecker's vigour.
He wanted an armed uprising and demanded the deputies of the St. Paul's Church in Frankfurt am Main to: Subsequently, on 12 April in Constance, he summoned the people of a provisional government to an armed uprising and, on the way, volunteered to go north.
Government troops fought the revolutionary Hecker uprising at the Battle on the Scheideck , near Kandern. Government troops, using the recently completed rail network from North Baden , were also ready to suppress the revolution in Freiburg.
At Easter, around 1, irregular troops barricaded in the city and waited for relief from armed revolutionaries led by Franz Sigel.
Meanwhile, government and Hessian troops tightened the siege ring around Freiburg. An advance guard of about revolutionaries led by Gustav Struve, who had gathered in Hobern, advanced against Sigel's express command towards Freiburg.
Shortly after Günterstal, the small team at the huntsman's well were met with superior government forces. After only a short battle, three soldiers and 20 irregular troops fell, which caused a mass exodus.
When the rest of Sigel's irregular troops finally arrived on 24 April, Easter Monday, there were bloody battles with government troops, in which the badly armed rebels were quickly defeated.
After Hecker's failure, Struve jumped into the breach. In September, he led a march on Karlsruhe in southern Baden, coming from Switzerland.
In Lörrach and Müllheim , he called the republic to act for prosperity, education, freedom for all!
But even this amateurish attempt, in the style of the colloquially-written well-known children's book Struwwelputsch , stifled the fired of the government troops.
Before a public jury one of the revolutionary demands , Struve was deemed responsible in March in Freiburg. The rejection of the German constitution by the Prussian king and most of the provincial prices, drawn up by the Frankfurt National Assembly, led to the Imperial Constitution campaign in This meant a renewed revival of revolutionary efforts especially in Baden and the Palatinate.
On 12 May, the people of Offenburg demanded the approval of the Imperial constitution by the Baden government. The Rastatt Fortress rose.
The Grand Duke now asked for Prussian armaments in fighting against the uprising. Whilst the Revolutionary Army was withdrawing to Freiburg after several defeats, a constitutional assembly was held in the Basler Hof, the Freiburg council building, on 28 June.
At the request of deputy Struve, freed from his detention in Rastatt, the panel decided to continue the war against the enemies of German unity and freedom with all possible means.
Colonel Siegl took over the command of the remaining Revolutionary Army, which had been encountered by irregular troops from Alsace and Switzerland.
The defeat of the Baden and Palatine uprising was carried out by Prussian troops led by "the canister shot prince" William I.
The fighting had not happened because a change of opinion had taken place and numerous Baden Revolutionary soldiers were captured and taken into Prussian captivity.
Hirschfeld release them all immediately. On 24 July, the fall of the Rastatt fortress ended the revolution. Afterwards, Prussian-Baden war courts were established and sentenced criminals.
In Rastatt and Bruchsal, 26 further revolutionaries suffered the same fate. The defeat of the Baden uprising meant for a long time the end of the revolutionary-bourgeois freedom and unity aspirations in Germany.
The Heckerlied, or Hecker song, recalls the spirit of the revolutionary citizens of Baden. In , the city and state councils were merged into the Freiburg District Office.
In the same year, the Black Forest Association founded the first German hiking association in the city. After the foundation of the Second German Empire in , Baden proved to be a loyal part from the outset since the ruling house was also linked to the Imperial House.
After in Baden, as everywhere else across Germany, Sedantag was celebrated, but in the southwest Germany, the day of the Battle of Belfort was celebrated.
In , in the presence of William I, the Grand Duke and Bismarck, the official victory monument, Siegesdenkmal , was erected in Freiburg.
The city experienced an economic boom during the Gründerzeit, not least because of annexed Alsace, as Colmar , located left of the Rhine was connect by rail to Freiburg.
Towards the end of the 19th century, Mayor Otto Winterer started a building boom, which was previously unknown and was named "the second founder of the city" in after serving for 25 years when he retired.
As an aspiring and modern city, Freiburg operated an electric tram network. For this reason, an electricity plant was built in Stühlinger.
In , the new city theatre was opened on the western edge of the inner city. During Winterer's reign as mayor, new residential areas such as the Wiehre and Stühlinger were established.
As a result, the number of buildings and inhabitants of Freiburg doubled. This was also due to the influx of older and wealthy people from the industrial areas of West Germany or from Hamburg, where cholera was raging, so that the city got the nickname Alldeutsches Pensionopolis German retirement city from Gerhart von Schulze-Gävernitz.
The townscape set out by Winterer which was adorned with a lot of historicism and had a medieval appearance, met the zeitgeist.
The proximitiy to the Black Forest and Kaiserstuhl as well as the warm climate attracted the people. This idyll exhaled growing social tensions.
It was a monstrous provocation of the bourgeois idyll of Freiburg, when in April , on the eve of the Great War, Rosa Luxemburg denounced class differences and German militarism in the crowded art and festival hall.
To eliminate them, she called the workers to the general strike. Under the influence of the speech conducted by a traitor of Germany , as seen by the bourgeoisie, citizens of Freiburg joined the Social Democratic Party.
The state of war, announced in Freiburg on 31 July, in extracts, sparked great rejoice amongst most citizens of Freiburg see Spirit of After fighting with French troops at Mulhouse, the first wounded soldiers arrived in Freiburg on 8 August.
More than 2, injured soldiers had been wounded and taken to lazarettos set up in schools and gyms at the end of month.
In total, there were around , injured people taken to the lazarettos across Freiburg during the war. During the First World War, the first time that the French Air Force who at the time was leading the way bombed unarmed people was in Freiburg on 14 December The German commander regarded this as a breach of the restrictions on international law according to the Hague Conventions of and The poor supply situation  and the flows of refugees from Alsace were a serious burden for the citizens.
The German high command regarded the breach of the restrictions on international law according to the Hague Conventions of and The aerial warfare against civilian targets was escalating more and more.
The German government used the attacks as a form of propaganda almost instantaneously, the names and kinds of injuries, especially those affecting children .
Because of its proximity to the front, allied airplanes and zeppelins bombed a total of 25 times   and thus more frequently than other German cities.
They bombed Freiburg more than they did any other German city. Air bombing increasingly changed public life. In December , there was a curfew on attacks.
From April , blackout measures had to be taken. In May , the city reduced its public lighting to a quarter and in May , it completely turned it off.
The bombing situation showed that the supply routes leading through Freiburg to the front in Alsace had to be hit because there were no warlike targets in Freiburg.
This meant neither the fortifications, the special artillery installations, nor the larger squad contingents or important armaments companies.
In addition, the citizens of Freiburg experienced the war in nearby Alsace both visibly and acoustically. Gunfire on top of the Vosges could be seen and heard.
Soon, as in Germany, the first deficiencies could be seen by the lack of food supply to the population. Food cards, which were gradually being issued, and tickets for daily life needs were often not worth the paper they were written on.
Due to the shortage of flour, bread was being stretched from potato starch and when potatoes were scarce, additional additives were found in war bread such as bran, maize, barley, lentils and even sawdust.
When, in the summer of , all bicycle tires had to be delivered, 10, bicycles were broken down for transport in Freiburg, Leather was one of the raw materials, which was no longer available at the start of the war for civilian use.
Soon, the majority of Freiburg's uniforms were worn out of fabric with wooden soles or ran barefoot in the summer. In July , most of the bells in the Minster were donated.
After the Spring Offensive had collapsed in and the defeat could be predicted as of August, Spanish flu was caught by the malnourished and the wounded in the lazarettos, from which people died in Freiburg.
On the morning of 9 November, , more than 9, soldiers gathered at Karlsplatz, defending the orders of their superiors.
On their uniforms, they wore red cockades. Military police shot but nobody was injured. Speakers urged prudence, peace and freedom. When, in the afternoon, the news arrived that Philipp Scheidemann had called the Republic in Berlin and soldiers' councillors first took over the city.
In the evening, they united with swiftly formed Workers' council lors to maintain law and order in Freiburg. The unification of Alsace to France after the loss of the First World War meant for Freiburg the loss of part of its land.
The city also lost its garrison when a 50 kilometre demilitarised zone was established on the right bank of the Rhine, where industrial settlements were banned.
Both of these contributed to the economic decline of the region. In the newly founded Weimar Republic in , 68 year-old lawyer, centre delegate and parliamentary president Constantin Fehrenbach resigned after the collapse of the Weimar coalition of a minority government from the Centre , German Democratic Party and the German People's Party as early as May This was due to the disunity of the coalition fulfilment of the Treaty of Versailles.
His successor was the former Minister of Finance of Baden, the left-wing Centre delegate and Freiburg-born Joseph Wirth , with a cabinet of Social Democrats, the Democratic Party and the Cetnre, which had to begin with unpopular policies of appeasement.
Whilst searching for allies against the victorious powers, Wirth, together with his foreign minister Walther Rathenau with Russia, affiliated the Treaty of Rapallo and led Germany out of isolation concerning foreign affairs.
In November , Wirth resigned because of quarrels within the coalition. In , in accordance to the initiative set out by French parliamentary deputy and pacifist Marc Sangnier , about 7, people from 23 nations gathered at the 3rd International Peace Congress in Freiburg to discuss ways of reducing hatred between nations, understanding the international situation and overcoming the war.
During the course of a district reform, the district of Breisach was dissolved in and its municipalities were largely allocated to the district council of Freiburg.
The Nazi Party was quite active in Breisgau from as early as , but in Freiburg, a ground-centre party and a strong social democrat, prevented a premature takeover of power by the Nazis, similar to the way they took over the city of Weimar in During a visit conducted by Adolf Hitler in to the football stadium Möslestadion, the citizens of Freiburg started to protest.
Since that moment, he was always shunned from the city. The further the economic situation worsened, the more the Weimar Republic lost the support of the population.
On 18 January, , during a celebration in Freiburg of the founding of the Bismarck Empire, the German national parliamentarian Paul Schmitthenner conjured up the strengthening of the German military concept in the belief of an up and coming great German Empire which benefits the German forces and eradicates the weak, reconciles capital and work for an earthly kingdom in splendour and glory.
The " Nazi seizure of power " at the end of January in Berlin also led to a quick brown takeover of power in Freiburg:.
At the University of Freiburg, the new rector Martin Heidegger proclaimed the greatness of the national socialist departure and the Führer cult and conjured in his speech the bloodthirsty forces as the only preserve of German culture.
On 17 April, , a group of English pupils were involved in an accident on the Schauinsland, five of which died.
The event was exploited as propaganda by the Nazi regime. Two years later, the English monument was erected on Schauinsland. In March, , the " SS - Reichsführer " Heinrich Himmler installed a series of collaborations between Freiburg archaeologists and his organisation " Ahnenerbe " from a two-week holiday in Badenweiler.
As in many places across Germany, during the Kristallnacht of , the old synagogue in Freiburg went up in flames. Afterwards, a large number of Jewish citizens were taken into protective custody.
Of these, male Jews from Freiburg were taken to the Dachau concentration camp, north of Munich, for 18 years. In , the District Office of Freiburg was renamed to the administrative district of Freiburg.
The city of Freiburg separated and became independent. On 22, October , the deportation of the Jews took place in Freiburg and across the whole state of Baden first to the French concentration camp at Gurs near to the Spanish border, and later from there to the extermination camps.
Numerous Stolperstein s were laid in Freiburg as an act of remembrance. History of the Jews in Freiburg im Breisgau. From early Summer of to November , Josef Mengele , the Sanitätswesen , the concentration camp doctor of Auschwitz , who was notorious for his medical experiments on living humans, and his wife Irene had a joint apartment in the Sonnhalde district of Herdern.
During the Bombing of Freiburg on 10 May , the German Luftwaffe mistakenly bombed the city with 69 bombs and killed 57 people.
Freiburg was largely spared from the aerial warfare conducted by the Allied forces. However, on 27 November, , the British Royal Air Force bombed the city centre as part of Operation Tigerfish , killing almost 3, people and injuring some 9, people.
On 17 December, , parts of Stühlinger were hit, whereby the Herz-Jesu church was heavily damaged. Christoph Meckel , who spent his childhood in Freiburg, describes in an autobiographical narrative published in , the blaze after the bombing of Freiburg's city centre as and the spot where, a few miles away, the silhouette of Freiburg could usually be seen, powerful flame was burning.
Large orange smoke seethed up high into the night, drifting ferociously over the mountain tops and devouring all darkness.
In the midst of the rubble, the Minster remained untouched. Without any direct hits, it resisted impact thanks to its solid stone construction from the Middle Ages to the air pressure of the detonating bombs, which covered it.
With roof tiles being donated by the city of Basel, the Minster was able to be largely covered again by January On 21 April, , before the end of the war, the French marched into the ruins of the old town with the 2nd Regiment of Chasseurs d'Afrique.
Freiburg was a part of the French occupation zone. In the years leading up to the monetary reform of , reconstruction of the city was slow.
The rubble was transported from to to the Flückiger Lake by means of the Freiburg rubble railway, called the Volksmund Trümmerexpress.
As in many other places in Germany, Freiburg received help from the Quakers and donations made by the Swiss. From to , Freiburg was the capital of the country from the a state of Germany of Baden as a consequence of the division of southwest Germany into a French and American occupation zone.
In , efforts to merge Württemberg-Baden , Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Baden provinces into a powerful state of Germany, the Southwest State , led to a vote in which a majority of three states approved the merger, but the people from South Baden opposed it.
They wanted to see the old country of Baden , along the Upper Rhine to Constance and to Mannheim in the south. Despite strong protests by the citizens of South Baden, the state of Baden-Württemberg was formed with Stuttgart as its capital.
Today, Freiburg is the seat of the administrative district , which largely corresponds to the former state of South Baden. Freiburg also saw a steady reconstruction of the inner city, which was largely aligned with the original streets.
In , the University of Freiburg celebrated its anniversary. In , Freiburg featured on the route of the Tour de France.
Student unrest during the late s also spread to Freiburg. The students demonstrated at the start against transportation costs which were increased by municipal transport companies.
For the first time, police used water cannons. In , the administrative district of Freiburg became a part of the newly formed Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald district.
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